The Further Scientific Career of the Pacific Flyer

flyerWe are enormously pleased to link to this article by by Colin Levings, Scientist Emeritus,  Department of Fisheries and Oceans, about his days on board the Western Flyer when it was chartered by the International Pacific Halibut Commission in  1962-63.

The article is provided by the Canadian Nautical Research Society and their publication, Argonauta, Summer 2016 (copyright © CNRS/SCRN and all original copyright holders).
Please link to the article here:

http://www.cnrs-scrn.org/argonauta/pdf/argo_33_3.pdf#page=9

Colin.

Colin Levings onboard the Western Flyer, authors collections

“I can still hear the whirring of the Iron Mike as it made port and starboard corrections to our heading. The trip across the Gulf from Cape Spencer to Kodiak in Alaska (about 600 miles) was the first time I had been on a boat out of sight of land.”

Colin Levings

We are pleased that more of our scientific colleagues are seeing the benefit that can come from documenting their career and their experiences. Scientists like Bob Hitz and Colin Levings had remarkable careers on the water, doing the basic research that is the foundation of our understanding of the oceans and the fish populations that live in it. The stories are entertaining, but they are also informative, as Colin’s story is, about his first trip to sea.

We could not have written All the Boats without the writing of Bob, his mentor, Dayton Lee Alverson, and Donald Gunderson, and Astoria pioneer trawler George Moskovita. Their stories brought rich detail to my narrative, and they helped me move from a local story to a more national, and ultimately global one. History is made up of many strands; narratives such as this one add a rich dimension to our understanding of how the science was constructed.

If you’re interested in more of our posts on science and scientists,  click here: Scientists

If you’re interested in more about the Pacific Flyer, click  here: Pacific Sardines and the Western Flyer.

Posted in Carmel Finley, Dayton Lee Alverson, Environmental History, fisheries science, Fishing, George Moskovita, History of Science, History of Technology, Maritime History, Ocean fishing, Pacific Fishing History Project, Rosefish, World History | Tagged | Leave a comment

Remembering J. Richard Dunn, 1934-2017

Passed away in Tacoma, Washington on March 22, 2017. Jean, a resident of Seattle since 1960, was born on June 27, 1934 in Coalinga, California, the only child of Jesse D. and Alice M. Dunn. He attended the local school, Oregon State University, and the University of Washington. Jean served in the U.S. Army from 1957-1959. A fisheries biologist, he worked for the State of Alaska, the University of Washington, and retired from the National Marine Fisheries Service in Seattle. He was an affiliate faculty member of the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences of the University of Washington from 1984 to 2006. Jean enjoyed reading as well as writing history and he published a number of biographical and historical sketches of prominent fishery scientists. He was preceded in death by his wife Martha and leaves no survivors. There will be no service and internment will be at Lake View Cemetery, Seattle.

Posted in Pacific Fishing History Project | Leave a comment

Me and page 99

99I’ve never thought much about a popular Internet idea, that reading a page of a book can sum up the book. But thanks to Marshal Zeringue at the Campaign for the American Reader,  if you were curious about having to read the whole book, the answer is that you don’t have to! Just page 99!

Posted in Pacific Fishing History Project | Leave a comment

A warm welcome for All the Boats

It’s been an exciting week, with the book coming out. First Nature gave it a mention:

Nature

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v543/n7644/pdf/543177a.pdf

And then it was reviewed in Science.

Science

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/355/6329/1030.1.full.pdf

 

 

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All the Science in an Ear Stone

sebastes1-e1338138425501With All the Boats on the Ocean being published in February, it’s time to think about how to carry on the story of the development of fisheries and fisheries science in the Pacific. I always thought I’d need a trilogy to tell the whole story. All the Fish is about the 1930s to the 1950s.  All the Boats brings that story to 1976 and the global expansion of territorial seas to 200 miles.

All the Science will bring the story to the present, more or less, or at least that is the current plan. Of course, there may be some glitches, such as my working title (I am assured the Press is going to want to change it, generally speaking you don’t put words like “science” in titles if you hope to sell books). And who knows what an ear stone is?

An ear stone is a bony growth in a fish’s ear. The proper name is otolith. They are hard, calcium carbonate structures located directly behind the brain of bony fish like Sebastes alutus. They  help with balance, orientation, and sound detection-much like the inner ear of mammals.

Hitz drawing

Hitz drawing, POP catches by the Soviets

Sebastes alutus, as all our alert readers know, is  better known by its many aliases, including Rosefish, Rosies, Redfish, and, more formally, Pacific Ocean Perch or POP.  The blog can really be said to be all about Rosefish and how they were almost eradicated by the Soviet factory processing fleets off Oregon in the 1960s. While there has been some recovery of the fish off Alaska, recovery off Washington, Oregon, and California has been pushed back to 2051.

To look at the story of the Rosefish, and their unique biology, is a way to trace how fisheries have globalized since the 1960s.

It’s also a way to talk about how fisheries science

George Moskovita and a load of Rosefish

George Moskovita and a load of Rosefish

has slowly uncovered the life story of these unusual fish. George Yost Harry Jr. Jergen Westrheim, and Dayton Lee Alverson were among the scientists first studying these fish. They suspected they might be be long-lived. George Moskovita fished for them, delivering the biggest load of his career to an Astoria cannery in 1965. Donald Gunderson was the first to study the impact of the Soviet fishing on the stock.

With new tools and technologies in the 1980s, scientists discovered that the fish can live for many decades, some to even 212 years. So the story of Rosefish is a story of the development of science. And that new science is in tension with the fisheries science  (MSY) that is at the heart of modern fisheries management today.

Fisheries are complex. They are hard to write about without being boring. Many of the issues are generally written about in a technical or academic style that is difficult to read.

One of the challenges in writing history is making it relevant, and telling a story in an engaging way that makes it easy for readers to follow. One of the best ways to do that is to hook your readers emotionally with the subject matter.  So All the Science about a fish, how it got fished, how it got studied, and what it all means to the way we understand our stewardship of the oceans and its fish stocks in the 21st century. I haven’t figured out how I’m going to tell that story yet, but the blog readers will be the first to know.

Posted in Environmental History, fisheries science, Fishing, George Moskovita, History of Science, History of Technology, Maritime History, Ocean fishing, Overfishing, Pacific Fishing History Project, Rosefish, Sebastes rockfish, Soviet environmental history, Soviet fishing, Soviet history', World History | Tagged | Leave a comment

Another Astoria, 1947, moment

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Nick Bez, left, with William L. Thompson, unknown man, Photo courtesy of the Columbia River Marine Museum

What I love most about writing history is the way information connects and how stories can be woven into frameworks for a greater understanding. History is not about the past, it is a powerful lens that allows you to understand the present and our place in it. The more history you know, the more grounded you can be. Since I’ve been reading through the almost 150 posts on this blog (many of them divided into story lines available here), I realized how many of the posts fit together, likes pieces in a jig saw. Yet if there is a single element that  ties all the posts together, it is Astoria, Oregon, at the mouth of the Columbia River, in 1947.

As someone who taught world history, I tend to focus on big frameworks in my work, looking at fisheries and fisheries science from national and international perspectives. But sometimes I read a detail that stops me short because it illuminates a lot in just a few words. I was struck by this sentence in  Lyle Anderson’s account of the early days at Bioproducts at Warrenton, in 1938. The Columbia River Packers Association (CRPA), the biggest fish company on the West Coast, was run by William L. Thompson.

“Some of the fishermen called him Tulie Thompson because in his earlier days as a fish buyer he acquired the reputation of down-grading trips of fish by calling them Tulies, which was the Columbia River name for a salmon in a run past its prime.”

It’s a line that incorporates a lot of information about the fish business on the Columbia in the 1930s–or the fish business anywhere, at any time.  Thompson sold his shares of the company to Nick Bez, who was elected chairman of the company. The CRPA also bought some shares in the Bez’s new Pacific Exploration Company.

The CRPA, or The Combine, as it was known locally, became the most powerful cannery on the West Coast.  It began operating in Alaska in 1902. By 1980, when the company shuts its doors and moved to San Diego, it was the largest employer in Astoria. Now, its old Hanthorn Cannery on the waterfront in east Astoria is Pier 39, an upscale boutique hotel.

It’s easy to romanticize the fishing industry, mainly, I think, because of all the wonderful pictures and the beautiful boats. One of the reasons why George Moskovita’s memoir is so important is that he describes a world of brutal hard work, dangerous conditions, and a struggle to cover costs and provide for a family. Guys like Tulie Thompson, downgrading the quality of their fish and paying a lower price, didn’t help.

 

 

Posted in Columbia River Packers Association, Fishing, History of Science, History of Technology, Nick Bez, Pacific Explorer, Pacific Fishing History Project | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Blurbers blurb about my new book!

finleyOne of the many nice things about publishing a book is that the press solicits people to say nice things about it, for printing on the back cover. These mini-book reviews are called blurbs, and the people who write them are called blurbers.

It’s still two months until the book will be out (Feb. 27 for those you counting the days) but the University of Chicago Press has finished the book jacket design and decided on these quotations for the book cover. John R. McNeill is one of the best American Cold War historians. Arthur McEvoy wrote the iconic The Fisherman’s Problem. And Ellen Pikitch is one of my oldest friends, director of the Institute for Ocean Conservation Science at Stony Brook University, and, incidentally, this year’s winner of the Oscar Elton Sette award from the American Fisheries Society for Outstanding Marine Fishery Biology.

In this compact and highly readable book, Finley argues that overfishing since the 1950s is less a tragedy of the commons than a tragedy of the Cold War. She shows how geopolitics, science, law, and greed combined to generate a scramble for the oceans and a regime of overfishing that lasts to this day. A welcome addition to several scholarly literatures.”—J. R. McNeill, author of Something New under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World

Finley makes her point—that government subsidies to deep-sea fishing are a main cause of the current catastrophe—dramatically clear. Her descriptions of the damage that factory trawlers did to the ocean floor and the speed with which they wiped out fisheries in the ’60s and ’70s are especially powerful. Relevant not only to people who are interested in fisheries and oceans, but also to those concerned with global resource crises generally, this interdisciplinary, pragmatic book surpasses most of the work of historians in this area. Synthesizing scientific material with international law and politics, as well as the internal affairs of government agencies and private businesses, Finley links the fisheries story to the ‘great transformation’ of global ecology in the postwar period by way of the technology, policy, and politics of food production. All the Boats on the Ocean is a significant, original book.”—Arthur McEvoy, author of The Fisherman’s Problem: Ecology and Law in the California Fisheries, 1850‒1980.

“Those of us who thought we understood how the oceans plight came about will find much that is new in this thoroughly researched and highly engaging work. Weaving history, politics, and science, Finley shows how the seeds of the current predicament were sown during the Cold War Era, as government subsidies fueled the rapid acceleration of fishing. Her call for a reinterpretation of the role of fishing within government is long overdue. A must-read.”—Ellen Pikitch, Stony Brook University.

 

Posted in Cold War, Environmental History, Fisheries policy, fisheries science, History of Science, History of Technology, Marine Policy, Maritime History, Maximum Sustained Yield (MSY), Overfishing, Pacific Fishing History Project, Rachel Carson Center, Soviet environmental history, World History | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

We dust! We clean! We re-organize!

President Harry Truman goes fishing, photo courtesy of Truman Presidential Library and Life magazine

President Harry Truman goes fishing, photo courtesy of Truman Presidential Library and Life magazine

We are telling a lot of stories here at the Pacific Fishery History Project, and since we have trouble keeping them straight, we’re sure it’s a problem for our loyal readers. Postings tend to be more than a little random. The blog is like a small town where Bob and I know everybody, but nobody else knows anybody. The blog is home ported (so to speak) in Astoria, Oregon, at the mouth of the mighty Columbia River. But it is Astoria in 1947, a very particular point in time in terms of fisheries development .

I set the blog up six years ago, as I was writing my first book, All the Fish in the Sea. I wanted OSU Press to republish George Moskovita’s memoir. I knew it would need an introduction and I needed to learn more about Pacific fisheries history. As I read, I started to write little posts. One of the early readers was a retired federal scientist, Bob Hitz, who always wanted to write a book about his adventures onboard the federal research ship John N. Cobb. He started with a blog post and now he’s writing his book.

Between us we’ve written about 150 posts about the development of fisheries and fisheries science after World War II. Most of our posts fall into eight main categories, but all of the posts are connected, either by the people, the boats, the fish, or other events. For the first time, we’re doing an inventory of our material, and linking posts together. Our posts are labeled, CF means I wrote the post, BH means it came from blog. We also include the date of original publication.

Most of the scholarly attention and journalistic interest in fisheries is devoted to the Atlantic Ocean, where fisheries developed over hundreds of years. Development in the Pacific was completely different, with fisheries starting and crashing; sometimes in less than a decade (check out our posts on Oregon’s first fishing crash). There are some West Coast fish (salmon springs to mind) with a rich and considerable literature. Our interest is in the industrial fishery and the science around it.

1) Our story begins in 1945, when President Harry Truman visited Seattle and went salmon fishing. The man rowing the presidential rowboat was Nick Bez, one of the richest men in the Northwest, owner of canneries and gold mines and the world’s largest fish processing boat. There are currently a dozen blog posts that tell the story of one of the Northwest’s most popular businessmen.

2) Exploratory fishing is also a major theme of the blog. The Soviets, the Japanese, and the Americans all engaged in exploring for new fish stocks after World War II. This was the process that brought the Soviets to Oregon, where they decimated POP stocks.

3) Fish. We are interested in fish. We have a series of posts about California sardines and Oregon pilchards, and how the California fishery stimulated fishery development in Oregon. We also have a long series of posts on Sebastes Alutus, which are also known as redfish, roses, Pacific Ocean Perch, or POP.

4). Scientists. I am a historian of science and I am interested in how science is created, and the context in which it is done. There are three pages here, dealing with a variety of modern fishery scientists, then posts on Dayton Lee Alverson and Jergen Westheim.

5) Boats. We like boats. And pictures of boats. The main boat in the blog is the federal research vessel John N. Cobb. Now retried from service, the Cobb was the primary research vessel on the Pacific coast since it was built in 1950. Our blog posts here divided in the history of Cobb, and Bob’s adventures on the Cobb. We also have a page for the Pacific Flyer, .

6) George Moskovita is one of the constant threads that runs throughout the blog. George fished for sardines in California in the 1930s, was one of the first fishermen to trawl out of Astoria in 1940, and he helped develop the shark fishery during World War II. Oregon State University has republished George’s memoir.

7) The Soviet Fishery of the 1960s. Some of the blog’s best posts are by Bob Hitz, who was one of the federal scientists studying the Soviet fleet.

8) Post-war global fisheries development. We’re primarily interested in West Coast fisheries, but we also have considerable interest in post-war fisheries in general.

For a general introduction, let’s start with Astoria, Oregon, in 1947.

Astoria, 1947, (CF, originally published Oct. 25, 2015)

https://carmelfinley.wordpress.com/2015/10/25/astoria-1947/

Towards a curriculum in Pacific fisheries history, (CF, published July 4, 2015)

https://carmelfinley.wordpress.com/2015/07/04/towards-a-curriculum-in-pacific-fisheries-history/

 

 

 

 

Posted in California sardines, Dayton Lee Alverson, Environmental History, Exploratory Fishing Base, fisheries science, Fishing, George Moskovita, History of Science, History of Technology, Maritime History, Nick Bez, Ocean fishing, Oregon pilchards, Overfishing, Pacific Explorer, Pacific Fishing History Project, R/V John N. Cobb, Rosefish, Sebastes rockfish, Soviet environmental history, Soviet fishing, Soviet history' | Leave a comment

Still another voice from Astoria in the 1930s

The cover for Lyle Anderson's brief biography of his career

The cover for Lyle Anderson’s brief biography of his career

We love it when families retrace their involvement in the fishing industry. The family of Lyle Anderson, who worked at Bioproducts in Warrenton, have been compiling information about their father’s career as a chemist making fish oils, pet food, and fish hatchery food.

The biography is short but it details the start of Bioproducts, a small Oregon company, “started on a shoestring in the Great Depression.” The company was started by Dick and Eben Carruthers. They raised money to get through school by packing salmon eggs for sports fishermen.

With the help of a Reconstruction Finance Corporation loan, they were able to lease a plan in Astoria, to make Vitamin A from fish livers.

We’ll be returning to this fascinating little stories in future blog posts.

Posted in California sardines, Columbia River Packers Association, Environmental History, Fishing, History of Science, History of Technology, Maritime History, Pacific Fishing History Project | 1 Comment

FIELD ROCKFISH KEY

fig-001

China Rockfish from Orr’s Guide, p. 32

By: Charles R. (Bob) Hitz       Blog 41                                             Nov 9, 2016

I was aboard the John N. Cobb one evening in August, 1960 during my first exploratory trip when we anchored alongside Triangle Island, the westernmost island of the Scott Islands group located off Cape Scott at the northwestern end of Vancouver Island, Canada.  It gave the crew a chance to sport fish and I was struck by the variety of rockfish caught.  I still remember seeing my first China Rockfish (S. nebulosus), its blue-black body color with a vivid yellow strip down the side.  The intensity of the different colors displayed by rockfish when they came out of the water was amazing.

fig-002

Sally Collins holding a Chinook Salmon Collins Photo

When we were on the grounds and had a successful tow, we’d sort the trawl-caught fish into groups.  One of them, rockfish, could be comprised of one or more of the 53 species found in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.  They were recorded as either red or black with the exception of one red species, Pacific Ocean perch (POP) S. alutus, which had recently became commercially important.  I was fascinated by the different color patterns of the rockfish.  They were not as vivid as sport-caught fish but were still very noticeable.

fig-003

Bruce Collins holding a red Vermilion Rockfish, Collins Photo

Bruce Collins, a family friend, loves to sport fish and makes a trip with his family to thewest side of Vancouver Island at least once a year seeking chinook and silver salmon.  They are very successful and he showed me a picture of his wife, Sally, holding a chinook salmon she caught.  He mentioned they caught a number of rockfish and showed me photos which reminded me of those fish I saw many years ago – the wonderfully vivid colors when they came out of the water alive.  He returned them to sea so they could continue to live.  We know they are slow-growing and that many rockfish live to be 50 to 100 years old.  There are pictures of Bruce holding a red Vermilion Rockfish (S. minialus), and a red striped species called the Tiger Rockfish (S. nigrocinctus) held by their son Scott.  The photo of the subdued brown one Bruce is holding is difficult to identify from only the picture because of the dark brown blotch on the rear part of the gill cover indicates it is a Brown Rockfish, (S. auriculatus) whereas the color streak on the 3rd dorsal spine which is found on the Copper Rockfish, (S. caurinus).  It could be a hybrid, which are known to exist in Puget Sound where there is apparent hybridization of quillback (S. maliger), copper and brown rockfishes, making species identifications especially difficult (1).  If they had appeared in the 1960 trawl catch when I was aboard the Cobb, the red-banded one as well as the red one would be piled into the red category, and the brown one would go into the black.

fig-004

Scott Collins holding a tiger Rockfish, Collins photo

 

Starting about the time I was hired we were required to identify each species in the catch, and with so many different rockfish we needed a key to identify some of them correctly.  Keys in those days were based on different characteristics of individual species and the two keys we used were Clemens and Wilby’s “Fishes of the Pacific Coast of Canada” (2) and Phillips’ “A Review of the Rockfishes of California” (3).  In 2008 after the Cobb was decommissioned I actually found a copy of the Clemens and Wilby book we had used.  On the inside of the cover in my handwriting I found, “Exploratory Fishing – U.S. Fish & Wildlife” written when I was on a trip in 1960.

Both keys used the “true and false” method for identifying a fish.  If we came across one we weren’t sure of we would go to Clemens and Wilby’s key, starting with Item 1 which reads “1 (6) Mouth in a circular sucking disk; jaws absent; nostril, 1, median.”  If the fish we were trying to identify was a rockfish the statement would be false, so we skipped, down to item 6 which states; “6 (1) Mouth not in circular sucking disk; jaws present; nostrils, 2”.  True, so then we could go to item 7, answering each of the descriptions which matched or skipping until we reached item 268 (315), which states; “Spines in anal fin, III, conspicuously large, stout, second and third usually longer and stronger than first; rays, 5 to 9,” which is true and we have reached Family Scorpaenidae – Rockfishes.  Then we could go down one line to item 269, answer those questions and continue down the lines until we had identified the rockfish we held.

fig-005

Bruce Collins holding a Hybrid Rockfish Collins Photo

If we couldn’t name the rockfish in the Clemens and Wilby key which listed 24 species of Sebastodes in Canadian waters, we would turn to Phillips’ key which lists 49 species in California waters.  His key is only for the family of Scorpaenidae – Rockfish, and the print was even smaller.

You can imagine trying to identify a fish by following a key like this on an open deck in rain and wind, the vessel rolling and pitching from ocean swells and chop.  Inspecting fish while wearing bulky foul weather gear and trying to read fine print was extremely difficult and keeping the book dry almost impossible.  If you got out of the weather and went down into the hold where the scientific lab was located and could concentrate on the small lines of text I, for one, would become seasick and have to get back up onto the deck.  I thought there had to be a better way for identifying rockfish in the field.

In those days the keys were put together in the depository where the preserved specimens

fig-006

Hitz’s Key,page 5, Hitz Drawing

were kept, and measurements and counts were made on individual specimens.  Most were preserved in formaldehyde, which leached out natural color.  Color photos of each species would have been the ideal way to produce a field key, but the cost of printing a colored pamphlet was prohibitive and there weren’t many colored photos of rockfish available.

Once I was back at the office I selected the 53 species that I believed existed along the northeastern coast of the Pacific, placed each name on a half-size sheet of typing paper and then divided those into 4 categories by body color; Striped Rockfish, Black Rockfish, Red Rockfish and White/Red-Spotted Rockfish, putting those identification tabs along the outside margins of the page.

Deciding that a pen and ink scale drawing of the profile of each fish was the way to go, I used Phillips’ publication (3) as a guide to make the drawing, using the black and white photo he had of individual fish to get the outline and the measurements and counts that he listed for each species to make sure of the accuracy of the drawing.

fig-007

Hitz’s Key pages 36 & 37, Hitz Drawing

Once that was completed, one or two characteristics that separated an individual from the rest of the group were selected, condensed to a few words and placed on the page next to its profile.  A line was drawn from the text to the profile so that the identifying characteristic that identified the fish could be easily recalled in the field.  The page was finalized by placing the tabs that represented the individual fish on the margins of the page.

fig-008

Orr’s Guide page 8

One of the four colored tabs which matched the color of the fish was put on the outer edge of the paper.  Head spines were used to separate the rockfish in the old keys, they were divided into two groups, weak or strong head spines, placed at the top of the page and one was selected to match the fish.  A drawing of the top of the head showing the location of the 8 pairs of head spines was also added to the page.  The head spines present for an individual fish were note on its page.  At the bottom there were three tabs representing the relationship of the 2nd anal fin spine to the 3rd that the old keys used to help separate the rockfish.  They were longer than 3rd, as long as 3rd, and shorter than 3rd.  The tab that represented the fish aided identification.

A number of drafts were tried in the field until the final one was laid out on an 8.5” x 11” standard sheet of paper.  This was divided in half, placing one fish on the right side and another on the left and folded to make a 5.5” x 8.5” pamphlet.  It could be put in a pocket and used when there was a question about the identification of a group of rockfish within the trawl catch.  If the pamphlet got wet and slimy it would dry out with time and if not, you could get another one.  It was finally published as the U. S. Department of Interior’s Fish and Wildlife Service Circular 203 in March 1965 (4) with a total of 53 species of Sebastodes listed, and IT WORKED.

After NOAA was formed in 1970, the observer program expanded and individuals were trained to go out on foreign vessels to monitor those catches, taking a circular with them.  It was modified in 1977 and again in 1981, adding 4 species for a total of 57 species, and the generic name was changed to Sebastes instead of Sebastodes.  Additional copies were made.

In October 1998 Orr, Brown and Baker published a new guide, which improved the old circular by replacing many of the drawings with color profile photos of each species of rockfish.  In the introduction Orr states; “Primarily designed as an aid in field identification, this guide follows the basic format of Hitz’s (1965) ‘Field Identification of the Northeastern Pacific Rockfish (Sebastodes),’ the first guide to successfully use color as a major characteristic to identify species of Sebastes.”  In August 2000 a second revision (5) was made and almost all the drawings were replaced with color photos, making the identification of individual fish easier.  Those publications listed a total of 66 species of Sebastes in the northeastern Pacific Ocean increasing the count by 13 from the 53 that I used in 1965.

 

  • Love, M. S., M. Yoklavich, & L. Thorsteinson (2002). The Rockfishes of the Northeastern Pacific.  The Regents of the University of California, 404 p.  (p. 144, caurinus, description and p. 129, S. auriculatus description)
  • Clemens, W. A., & G. V. Wilby (1961). Fishes of the Pacific Coast of Canada.  Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin No. 68, 443 p.
  • Phillips, J. B. (1957). A Review of the Rockfishes of California (Family Scorpaenidae).  California Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin No. 104, 158 p.
  • Hitz, C. R. (1965). Field Identification of the Northeastern Pacific Rockfish (Sebastodes). U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Circular 203.
  • Orr, J. W., M. A. Brown & D. C. Baker (2000). Guide to Rockfishes (Scorpaenidae) of the Genera Sebastes, Sebastolobus, and Adelosebastes of the Northeast Pacific Ocean, Second Edition.  NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-117, 47 p.
Posted in Exploratory Fishing Base, fisheries science, Fishing, History of Science, History of Technology, Maritime History, Ocean fishing, Pacific Fishing History Project, R/V John N. Cobb, Rosefish, Sebastes rockfish, World History | 1 Comment