Happy 40th Birthday, Magnuson-Stevens Act!

Sen Ted Stevens and Sen. Warren Magnuson, courtesy of the Marine Conservation Alliance

Sen Ted Stevens and Sen. Warren Magnuson, courtesy of the Marine Conservation Alliance

They bracketed an era. Maggie, first elected as an FDR New Deal Democrat, who created the  modern American fishery, and Ted, the Alaska Republican who carved the empire into winners and losers, shaping the fishing industry of the US for the next century.

We spent quite a bit of time this winter thinking about the Magnuson-Stevens Act, which is turning 40 this week. It is easy to be critical of the act, plenty of people are. We have just finished our second book, arguing about what it got wrong. But the fact of the matter is, given the political context in which the act was signed, it did a pretty good job.

The Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (now known as the Magnuson Stevens Act, or MSA, after the two senators who did most to shape it, Warren Magnuson and Ted Stevens) passed 40 years ago last week, in 1976. Our friends know how bad we are about remembering birthdays, and did not remember this one either, we depended on the Pew Charitable Trust  to mark the date for us. (Check out their list of five things we now know about the ocean, that we didn’t know in 1976).

Many of our posts on the blog deal with the events that led up to passage of the MSA–mainly the foreign boats (especially Soviet boats) fishing off American waters, as Bob Hitz had told us about. The Departments of State and Defense were opposed to widening the territorial sea from three to 200 miles, but Congress acted after people overwhelmingly supported controls on the foreign boats–especially Soviet boats–in American waters. The seas were an important battle front during the Cold War, and the competing pressures made it difficult to reach agreement on expanding the territorial sea from three to 200 miles in 1966. What was to be done about fishing?

There were eleven agencies involved in fishing in some way, with little incentive for them to cooperate—there were not even mechanisms if they had wanted to cooperate, according to Edward Wenk Jr., a policy staffer during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, who wrote about the messy policy debate in The Politics of the Ocean, published in 1972.[i] For anyone interested in this period, Wenk’s book is essential reading. Also essential is From Abundance to Scarcity, by Michael Weber.

The history of American maritime policy is found within a complex stew of competing agencies. The Coast Guard was created in 1790, the Navy in 1798. Federal intervention into the fisheries was piecemeal and spasmodic, responding to crises and with no overall attempt at an integrated policy.

Federal fishery scientists in the postwar saw their role as supporting the economic role of fishing, finding markets so that American fishermen could sell more fish and make more money. But for the post-war American fishermen, especially in New England but also in California, the problem was not finding new markets; the problem was the American industry could not complete with cheap tuna from Japan and cheap cod from Canada and Iceland; fisheries in all three countries were subsidized by the state and American fishermen had almost no access to government aid.

The thrust of American post-war economic policy was free trade. As the Cold War deepened, it was essential to rebuild the Japanese and German economies, and re-integrate both countries into global trade. Also important was to tilt countries such as Iceland and Norway towards the US, and not to trade with the Soviets. Thus the State Department worked to increase cod imports from Iceland and Norway, and canned tuna from Japan.

The post-war American fishing industry spent most of the 1950s fighting with the federal government for a tariff to protect their markets. Despite many hearings, they failed dismally.  Americans were buying a lot more fish but unfortunately it wasn’t fish caught by American fishermen.

The Saltonstall-Kennedy Act in 1954 collected 30 percent of gross receipts of custom duties on imported fish products and directed them to doing marketing and research for the industry. After the passage of the Fish and Wildlife Act in 1965, the bulk of money was soon devoted to general operations of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (BCF).[i] The new Bureau “was not much more important than the Fish and Wildlife Service had been,” said Wenk.[ii] Recreational fishermen and the processing industry sought to blunt the power of the commercial industry.

The new bureau focused on finding overseas markets for American fish, even though most of the traditional American fisheries were static, or, as the bureaucrats put it, “mature,” including New England cod, haddock, and ocean perch, northwest salmon and halibut).[iii]

“The United States should be the leading fishing nation of the world because it has all the qualifications for this position,” the new bureau stoutly argued in 1968.[v] Despite extensive coastlines, stocked with many different kinds of fish, Americans were importing more and more of the fish they ate, and the American fishing fleet, which should be the best in the world, clearly wasn’t.

While most other countries created direct loans to fishermen to build boats during the 1950s and 1960s, the Americans would not do so until 1970. Led by Warren Magnuson, the first federal fisheries planning was done after the passage of the 1976 act.  Magnuson had complained for more than a decade that the most important battlefront in the Cold War was being fought on the nation’s fishing grounds. And with the passage of the bill that bears his name, he set about modernizing and industrializing the American fishing industry.

[i] Wenk, 21.

[ii] Wenk, 250.

[iii] Weber, 30.

[v] Weber, 79.

 

[i] Michael Weber, From Abundance to Scarcity: A History of U.S. Marine Fisheries Policy (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2002), 21.

[i] Edward Wenk Jr., The Politics of the Ocean (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972), 47.

[i] David Helvarg, Blue Frontier: Saving America’s Living Seas (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 2001), 177.

[ii] James P. Walsh, “The Origins and Early Implementation of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976,” Bevan Lecture Series on Sustainable Fisheries, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences/School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington April 24-25, 2014.

[iii] Weber, 86.

Posted in Cold War, Fisheries policy, Fishing, History of Science, Maximum Sustained Yield (MSY), Pacific Fishing History Project, Soviet environmental history, Soviet fishing, Soviet history' | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Moskovita book for sale at history conference

Moskovita Memoir at the OSU Book booth at the American Society for Environmental History in Seattle

Moskovita Memoir at the OSU Book booth at the American Society for Environmental History in Seattle

You have no idea how pleasant it is to see a book you have worked on for sale. Even better would be watching somebody buy the book, but that has only happened to me once, when we went to a bookstore with somebody who was going to buy the All the Fish.

And that brings us to All the Boats, and we are greatly cheered that the University of Chicago Press is not going to change the title, since we think we are on a bit of a roll here. Although we do admit that we are a little challenged by what to call the next book, our working title is All the Science, but that doesn’t exactly sing.

We are just back from the American Society for Environmental History conference the first week in April in Seattle. It is always pleasant to meet with friends and colleagues, especially those from the Rachel Carson Center in Munich. We were part of a panel looking at food, which was a change of pace for us, although we did talk about fish.

OSU Press had a large booth and a lot of enticing new books. And, there, in the front row was George’s book, and we can’t help thinking that he would have been very pleased. Our thanks to his family for their support in bringing this important work back into print.

Posted in Columbia River Packers Association, Environmental History, Fishing, George Moskovita, History of Science, History of Technology, Ocean fishing, Pacific Fishing History Project, Rachel Carson Center, Sebastes rockfish | Tagged | 1 Comment

A few notes on Milner Baily Schaefer (1912-1970) and the R/V Oregon

Milner Baily Schaefer, SIO photo

Milner Baily Schaefer,
SIO photo

When you finish a book, there are always bits and pieces left on the floor, or on the desk, or in the cupboard, things that are interesting but you just can’t fit them in because they distract from the point you are trying to make and that is hard on your readers. We’ve finished two books now (yes, All the Boats on the Ocean has been turned over to the highly capable hands of my editor, Christie Henry at the University of Chicago Press), and for those of you wondering why it look so long, the peer review alone took more than five months. Instead of finishing the book over the summer, we didn’t get back to work on it until November. See how easy it is to get distracted from what we were originally writing about?

We’ve been thinking a lot of about Benny lately (that’s what his friends called him). Schaefer is generally regarded as one of the leading post-war American fishery biologists. He was considered F. W. Thompson’s top student at the School of Fisheries at the University of Washington. He was the first director of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission between its creation in 1951, until 1956. He is the author of the concept Surplus Production Theory, which held that fish populations had “surplus” that could safely be harvested, a theory that has been much criticized. If you are interested in his very illustrious career, here’s a link to a biography by Deborah Day, the former archivist at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, http://scilib.ucsd.edu/sio/biogr/Schaefer_Biogr.pdf

Chapman's book on his adventures was published in 1949.

Chapman’s book on his adventures was published in 1949.

We are more interested in his early life. He started his university career in 1935, he graduated Magna Cum Laude from the University of Washington, and won the President’s Medal for scholastic excellence. He also met Wilbert McLeod Chapman. Together, these two students of W. F. Thompson’s would go on to decisively shape post-war American fisheries science. Together, they would mobilize fisheries science into a powerful tool for the State Department to wield against nations unhappy with American fishing boats in their waters. Both graduated from the School of Fisheries at UW.

Schaefer enlisted in the Navy in 1942 and was commissioned a lieutenant. Chapman was turned down for service because he was blind in one eye. Chapman was working for the Washington Department of Fisheries in the early 1940s. He was offered the job of Curator of Fisheries  at the San Francisco Academy of Sciences. Almost immediately, the Office of Economic Warfare asked him to survey tropical Pacific fish resources and to develop a fishery to feed American troops.

Chapman had Lt. Schaefer added to the fishery project, but Schaefer almost immediately contracted rheumatic fever, was invalided home, and spent fourteen months recovering in Naval hospitals. One of the other of the five scientists Chapman worked with in the Pacific, Robert T. Smith, died “of ailments aggravated by his experiences in the South Pacific.”[1]

A book based on Chapman’s wartime adventures in the South Seas appeared in 1949. Chapman called it Fishing in Troubled Waters, a provocative title if ever there was one, but the book is a light-hearted and rueful account of his misadventures, trying to learn fishing skills from native fishermen. It is breezily dedicated to “the gals we left behind, Mazie, Marge and Vi, this book is dedicated in the hope that some day we will be forgiven for having deliberately started and maintained the Pacific war in order that we could have a trip to the South Seas without taking them along.”

The dedication is discordant, in that one scientist died during the venture, and Schaefer’s health was probably permanently impaired by the long bout of rheumatic fever; he died in 1970 at the age of 58. When the war ended and Schaefer was recovered, he went to work for the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service out of Honolulu. He was one of the first American scientists to work in the Mandated Island, the Marshall, Mariana, and Caroline Islands, where the Japanese had developed a lucrative fishery for tuna in the 1920s.

With the end of the war, the American government moved to take over the fisheries the Japanese had developed in the Pacific, the king crab fishery in Alaska, and the high seas tuna fishery, especially in the Mandated Islands. The vehicle to achieve both goals was the Pacific Explorer, the world’s largest fishing boat, and the flamboyant man who ran it, Nick Bez.

In January of 1947, after a final outfitting in Astoria, the Pacific Explorer, accompanied by twelve trawlers rigged for purse-seine fishing, set off on its shake-down cruise, to Costa Rica. The trawlers would catch the fish, then transfer it to the mothership for freezing. The Pacific Explorer was nothing if not efficient: it would not only freeze and transport  tuna, but it would do research as well. There was a fisheries technician assigned to the vessel, as well as a fisheries biologist, Milner B. Schaefer. The crew would “study ocean life and currents and temperatures.”

It was an impossible assignment; it’s not feasible to look for fish, operate a floating fish plant, and do any meaningful research on ocean conditions. But Benny took at least two cruises on the Oregon, which Bob Hitz has told us was the first of the four fishing boats built to work with the Pacific Explorer.

Benny made at least two cruises on the Oregon, at least according to the published literature. He spent from January of June of 1948 onboard the Oregon and the Alaska scouting for tuna in the Western Pacific, in the waters around what were called the Mandated Islands, the Marshall, Marina, and Caroline islands. The Japanese had developed a lucrative fishery for tuna during the 1930s and the Americans wanted to claim the waters for American fishermen.

American fisheries at the time depended on bait, for a pole and line fishery that had been developed by the Japanese and exported to California. But the research cruises showed that bait was hard to find in the central Pacific.  The American fleet would not be able to greatly advance its tuna fisheries in the Pacific until the development of the power block in 1957.

 

[1] Chapman papers, Box 4, Folder 6, “Statement in Regard to the Recent Death of Richard Thomas Smith,” undated.

Posted in boat building, Cold War, Environmental History, fisheries science, Fishing, History of Science, History of Technology, Nick Bez, Pacific Explorer, Pacific Fishing History Project | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Nick Bez, a portrait by Karsh of Ottawa

A portrait of Nick Bez, by Karsh of Canada. Permission of the Bez family.

A portrait of Nick Bez, by Karsh of Canada. Permission of the Bez family.

The Bez family very kindly let us go through the voluminous collection of materials they amassed about the career of Nick Bez, the millionaire fisherman turned airline executive. There were several copies of a striking photograph of Bez and there was a famous name on the corner, Karsh.

Yousuf Karsh was an internationally renowned portrait painter. He was born in 1908 in Turkey and moved to Canada in 1924. He worked with his uncle, who was a photographer. He called himself Karsh of Ottawa and he traveled the world shooting portraits of famous people, including Winston Churchill, Dwight Eisenhower, and Ernest Hemmingway. He died in 1902 at the age of 93.

Did Karsh travel to Seattle to photograph Bez? In his office, perhaps? Note that the globe is positioned to show the North Pacific Ocean, where Bez made his money and put his stamp on Pacific Northwest history.

These two paragraphs from the Karsh obituary in The New York Times certainly sum up the portrait of Nick Bez.

Mr. Karsh was a master of the formally posed, carefully lighted studio portrait. Working with an 8-by-10 view camera and a battery of artificial lights (he was said to carry 350 pounds of equipment on his trips abroad) he aimed, in his own words, “to stir the emotions of the viewer” and to “lay bare the soul” of his sitter.

He characteristically achieved a heroic monumentality in which the sitter’s face, grave, thoughtful and impressive, emerged from a dark, featureless background with an almost superhuman grandeur. As the historian Peter Pollack put it in his “Picture History of Photography”, “Yousuf Karsh, in his powerful portraits, transforms the human face into legend.”

Posted in Carmel Finley, Environmental History, Fishing, History of Science, History of Technology, Nick Bez, Pacific Explorer, Pacific Fishing History Project | Tagged | Leave a comment

Nick Bez, friend of presidents

Unidentified man to the left, Nick Bez, President Harry Truman, Washington Senator Warren Magnuson. Undated, courtesy of the Bez family

Unidentified man to the left, Nick Bez, President Harry Truman, Washington Senator Warren Magnuson. Undated, courtesy of the Bez family

The Pacific Explorer, the world’s largest fishing boat, was eventually sold for scrap, but Nick Bez stayed in the news.[i] He sold his stock in Astoria’s Columbia River Packers Association in 1951 and bought P. E. Harris, one of the largest salmon-packing and distributing companies in the Northwest, founded in 1916. Bez took over the assets and became president, board chairman, and the largest stockholder.

The company had packed salmon under a variety of names, including Peter Pan, Gill Netters Best, and Sea kist. Bez renamed the company Peter Pan Seafoods, Inc. and it operated canneries in Alaska, Puget Sound, and Astoria. He broadened the marketing line to include canned tuna and Alaska king crab. He was bringing frozen Japanese tuna to the U.S. to can, evading any tariff, and worsening the economic situation of the Southern California boats, an act that undoubtedly gave him great pleasure, seeing as how the Southern California boats had forced him out of Central America. His was one of the first American companies to import salmon and tuna from Japan to process in the U.S.[ii]

Two of his boats, the Western Clipper and the freezer ship Toni B, were charged with “illegal fishing” in Peruvian waters in 1955. He refused to pay the fines. “We aren’t going to recognize any 200-mile limit,” he told the Seattle Times. “If they get away with 200 miles, they could make it 10,000 miles.”[iii] The Toni B, described as a former Navy tug, sank in February of 1955, in “heavy Caribbean waters.” Bez’s son, John, was the skipper of the boat. All 10 men were saved when they were picked up by a Navy vessel. The Toni B had been on her way to deliver 600 tons of tuna to the new cannery at Ponce, Puerto Rico. The cargo was valued at $180,000, according to clippings from several unknown news papers in the possession of the Bez family.

Bez had always been colorful, but when he was first quoted in the press, his accent was reproduced, with faulty grammar and incorrect syntax. He was painted as an immigrant who made good, a penniless boy who became a millionaire, a smart man but with no formal schooling and the coverage was often patronizing. The tone in his hometown paper was a lot more respectful by 1960, when Bez threw a party for 500 at the Rainier Club Lounge in Seattle. He was celebrating the 50th anniversary since his arrival in the U.S.

His friends included most of the city’s political and financial elite.[iv] He was still the friend of presidents, chairing a Seattle committee to raise money for the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library.

Nick Bez died in 1969 at the age of 73.

[i] Portland Oregonian, December, 1951.

[ii] Erwin Laurance, The Seattle Times, “Salmon-Packer Baits World’s Fair Hook,” March 5, 1962, 13.

[iii] Seattle Times, Jan. 25, 1955.

[iv] John Reddin, “Faces of the City: 500 Attend Nick Bez’ “Little Party,” Seattle Times, Sept. 16, 1960.

Posted in Carmel Finley, Columbia River Packers Association, Fishing, Nick Bez, Pacific Explorer, Pacific Fishing History Project | Tagged | Leave a comment

FIRST CATCH – My First COBB Trip

Fig 01

A lift coming onboard, Hitz photo

By Charles R. (Bob) Hitz         Blog # 38                        Jan. 25, 2016

I had been waiting patiently for the skipper to give the command to retrieve the trawl after an hour of towing it along the bottom, hoping it would not hang up on an unknown obstruction and would yield a catch. This was my first opportunity to observe and be involved in working a trawl catch in unexplored offshore waters, under the eyes of chief scientist Al Pruter. There were only two scientists aboard the vessel, Al and myself, for this part of the trip.

I was aboard the research vessel John N. Cobb on the second half of exploratory cruise

Fig 02

Simrad Echo sounder showing trace below, Hitz photo

number 47 to Queen Charlotte Sound, B.C. Canada. In the article by H.E. Crowther entitled “Exploratory Fishing” he writes; “The primary functions of exploratory fishing are to search unexplored waters – especially offshore waters – for new fishing grounds” (1). Prior to when I went out on the Cobb in August, 1960 the exploratory group had worked out a method of determining whether there were any tows in the untrawlable areas that commercial fishermen suggested we explore. First run a series of sounding transects to determine the character of the bottom, then drag a chain over areas suggested as being trawlable by the sounder and finally, replace the chain with a commercial otter-trawl net and fish over those grounds on which the chain was successfully pulled, evaluating the commercial potential of the ground fish present.

Fig 03

Drag chain on deck, replaced with the net, Hitz photo

The waters off the coast of British Columbia had been part of the fishing grounds of the U. S. trawl fleet for years before the Magnuson-Stevens Act became law in 1976 and the 200 mile conservation zone was established. The Western Flyer was part of the trawl fleet that fished Queen Charlotte Sound in late ‘50s and early ‘60s. Some commercial trawl fishermen had pointed out areas off the tip of Vancouver Island that were untrawlable, wanting them to be explored by the Cobb.

Once we arrived on the grounds on August 17, 1960, the first thing was to set haul #45 to determine what species were found there. We were to duplicate haul #44 made in the first half of the cruise when the puckering string came undone, the catch was lost before it could be brought aboard and there wasn’t time to complete another tow. I was waiting to see what was in this catch and I became excited when the fish came aboard in one lift of the cod end and was released into the checker.

Fig 04

Stations, Second half of Cobb Cruise 47, BCF Drawing

The first thing the biologist must do when the catch is brought aboard is make an estimate of the total weight. A full checker holds about 3,500 lbs. and half a checker equals about 1,750 lbs. A lift or a full split is about 2,000 lbs. and the estimated weight for this haul was one ton or 2,000 pounds.

The catch is then sorted by species and a count of each made and recorded on a Data Form. A copy of the original is included here and is referred to as “Station 67”. This number was changed to #45 in the final published report (2) and a copy of Figure 7 from the report has the net hauls plotted with the new numbering system. Otter-trawl drag numbers 39 to 44 were made during the first half and numbers 45 to 56 were made during the second half.

The reason there is a difference between the original and final report numbers is that only the net hauls were used and renumbered in chronological order. All the other stations were deleted such as the sounding transects where an echo sounder was used to determine whether the bottom was soft and trawlable or hard and untrawlable as well as all the stations where a chain replaced the trawl net to reduce damage to the nets.

Fig 05

Cobb’s chart table, Hitz photo

The skipper on the bridge has a chart laid out on the chart table and he plots the drag on it from the start to the end. He uses loran or radar to get the position along with the depth of the drag from the sounder. When making a tow he tries to follow a depth contour, in this case 85-86 fathoms. The biologist later converts the plot into latitude and longitude from the chart and records them along with any other information required.

Fig 06.jpg

Page 1 of Original Data form Station 67 (45) BCF Form

The form is set up for exploratory fishing and the results are of interest to the fishing industry. Since this cruise was designed to find trawlable grounds, when a successful haul like 45 is made the commercial fishermen need the exact location so they can repeat it if they wish, and to know what was in the catch by weight since they are paid by the pounds landed. For example, in this haul there were 200 individual Pacific Ocean perch (POP) at an average weight of 2.5 pounds, equaling 500 pounds.   Adding the weight of each of the food fish species totals 1690 pounds. Adding all the categories on the form the catch total is equal to 2091 pounds, which should equal or come close to the original estimated weight.

Fig 07

page 2 of Original Data Form Station 67 (45) BCF Form

To my surprise there were five different species of rockfish in the catch. In the final report they would be classified as Black, Red and POP but on this form they were broken down by the scientific names except for POP (S. alutus), because there are at least 55 species of rockfish along the Pacific coast and they are difficult to differentiate.

I became so interested in this catch, helping to work up the data and to identify the rockfish, that I completely forgot about being seasick the day before on the transit along the outer coast of Vancouver Island. This was only the first day on the grounds, but a presage of the rest of the trip.

 

 

 

 

 

Posted in Exploratory Fishing Base, fisheries science, Fishing, History of Science, History of Technology, Maritime History, Ocean fishing, Pacific Fishing History Project, R/V John N. Cobb, Rosefish, Sebastes rockfish | Tagged , , , , | 2 Comments

RETRIEVING THE TRAWL – My First Cobb Trip

Cobb, 1968 configuration, Hitz drawing

Cobb, 1968 configuration, Hitz drawing

By: Charles R. (Bob) Hitz       Blog # 37                                 Jan. 2, 2016

It’s been over fifty-five years since I first observed the setting and retrieval of a trawl on the Cobb, and I still remember the excitement when the skipper gave the command to retrieve it. I had been waiting for an hour to see what would be brought up in the net, if anything.

Trawl door brought up to the stanchion, Hitz Photo

Trawl door brought up to the stanchion, Hitz Photo

I mentioned in my posting on “Setting The Trawl” that I’d found a number of color slides of that process, which brought back memories of the 1960’s and Lee Alverson’s lecture in 1958 about a major change in the distance water trawl fleets with the introduction of stern trawling, which had been going on for years along the Pacific coast.

Trawl door is chained to the stanchion, Hitz photo

Trawl door is chained to the stanchion, Hitz photo

The Cobb slowed down once the skipper gave his command, the winches were engaged and the trawl cables retrieved and wound onto the trawl drums. The winch operator used the level wind to make sure the wraps were laid evenly. Once the trawl doors could be seen, the winch operators would bring each door up to the trawl stanchion as far as it would go and stop.

The net is pulled to the stern, Hitz photo

The net is pulled to the stern, Hitz photo

The next procedure is just the reverse of what occurred in setting. The chain hanging loosely from the stanchion is hooked onto the door. Trawl doors are then let out until the jam link encounters the figure 8, the strain of the net is taken by the stanchion and the main cable becomes slack. The G-hook is disconnected from the flat link, freeing the doors from the main trawl cable. Then the trawl bridle is pulled in through the block by the idler connecting the trawl cable with the bridle, until the wings of the net reach the stern of the vessel.

Wings are attached to the single, Hitz photo

Wings are attached to the single, Hitz photo

The trawl is long, divided into three parts the wings, the intermediate and the sausage shaped cod end. When the wings reach the stern, one on each side, they are attached to the single by a lifting bridle and raised up as far as it can go to the block at the end of the boom as the vessel is turned to starboard and then put into reverse, bringing the net to the starboard side. The net is then lowered and the intermediate part of the net falls over the rail as the wings are let down on the after deck and reconfigured for setting. The intermediate part of the net is held in place as it is folded over the rail, so that the lifting bridle can be disconnected and the single wrapped around the middle of the net and then pulled up. The sausage cod end is raised until the very end with the catch is brought inboard over the checker and the puckering string is pulled, letting the catch fall into the checker.

Vessel is turned to starboard and put into reverse, Hitz photo

Vessel is turned to starboard and put into reverse, Hitz photo

If the weight is greater than the single can handle, the double is used and if the catch is too large to be lifted, the splitting strap is used by hooking it with the single and as the single is pulled up, the cable encircling the cod end through rings tightens, forcing the catch to split. Part of the catch slides to the closed end and the rest slides back into the sausage of the cod end alongside the vessel. The end is lifted out of the water and released into the checker. The puckering string is retied, the bag put back into the water and the process is repeated until the entire catch is removed from the net. The biologist records the estimated weigh of the entire catch and it is sorted by species.

The net is folder over the rail and the wings are let down, Hitz photo

The net is folder over the rail and the wings are let down, Hitz photo

Single is attached to the net, Hitz photo

Single is attached to the net, Hitz photo

That procedure, used by Pacific coast stern trawlers, differs from that of the European stern trawlers which Lee observed on his trip to Europe in 1958. Since those ships were much larger, the method the Europeans had developed was to drag the entire net with its catch in the cod end up a stern ramp to a deck above and then dump the catch through a hatch in the after part of the ship into the factory below just as they had done with whales, when they would drag a whole carcass up the ramp to be butchered on the upper deck.

Cod end is released, dumping the catch

Cod end is released, dumping the catch

In October, 1957 when Lee Alverson was a fishery biologist with the State of Washington, he made a trip to Hamburg, Germany and presented a paper at a meeting of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The paper, Trends in Trawling Methods and Gear on the West Coast of the United States was published by FAO in 1959 (1). He describes his experience of this trip in his autobiography (2) and this was the same trip during which he observed the Soviet stern trawler that he lectured about at the College of Fisheries in 1959. After viewing them he said “The Russian vessel was so big it looked like a cruise boat or small whaler. The vessels dwarfed anything that existed in the Pacific Northwest; I was almost embarrassed to give my talk on small West Coast stern trawlers.”   His article described the net reel that was introduced to the Pacific Coast trawl fleet in 1952. One was installed on the Cobb and another on the Commando in about 1962. A pair of V-doors were also purchased by each at about the same time.

Catch in the checker, Hitz photo

Catch in the checker, Hitz photo

A split coming onboard, Hitz photo

A split coming onboard, Hitz photo

The net reel is made much more efficient by disconnecting the trawl bridles aft of the doors and transferring them to the drum where the bridles, along with the majority of the trawl net are wound onto the reel. The cod end is lifted with the single and brought around the stern to the starboard side where the catch is lifted aboard. Then the net is rolled up onto the reel, ready to be set again. Using the net reel along with the V-doors which are much more stable, reducing the chance of a collapsed door or crossed doors during a tow, makes trawling safer.

The Cobb's new net reel, Hitz photo

The Cobb’s new net reel, Hitz photo

 

  • Alverson, D. L., 1959, Trends in Trawling Methods and Gear on the West Coast of the United States. Modern Fishing Gear of the World. Fishing New (Books) Ltd. 1959 pages 317-320.
  • Alverson, Dr. Dayton L. PHD, Race to The Sea, The Autobiography of a Marine Biologist, 2008 iUniverse, Inc. New York, Bloomington 553 pages, (Trip to Europe pages 308 to 321).

 

 

Posted in Dayton Lee Alverson, Environmental History, Exploratory Fishing Base, fisheries science, Fishing, History of Science, History of Technology, Maritime History, Ocean fishing, Pacific Fishing History Project, R/V John N. Cobb, World History | Leave a comment

2015 in review

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2015 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 8,700 times in 2015. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 3 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

Click here to see the complete report.

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Watching the Soviets off the Canadian Coast

It is amazing to me that there has been so little study of the Soviet fleet off the West Coast in the 1960s. We are very pleased to reblog this post from The Devil of History, which is a totally cool name for a blog.

The Devil of History

David Zimmerman’s new book on the Royal Canadian Navy, Maritime Command Pacific, discusses the navy’s anxieties about the presence of Soviet trawlers or merchant ships off the Canadian Pacific coast. Maritime Command Pacific presumed that Soviet ships were undertaking intelligence activities to monitor Canadian naval and maritime air forces, military radio transmissions, and underwater cables. In wartime, they suspected the Soviet fishing fleet would be cut submarine cables, jam radio communications, lay mines, land secret agents, raid isolated shore targets, support Soviet submarine and aircraft operations, or even scuttle ships to block Canadian ports. As a result, planning for home defense in British Columbia included guards for as many as 3,000 captured Soviet seamen, and naval operations included the close surveillance of Soviet fishing vessels in the Canadian area of operations (which extended beyond Canadian territorial waters).

HMCS New Glasgow at sea, 1956. Canada. Department of National Defence / Library and Archives Canada / ecopy. LAC Ref. Archival reference no. R112-6097-7-E. HMCS New Glasgow at sea, 1956. Canada. Department of National Defence /…

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WESTERN FLYER – Converted to a Trawler

Western Flyer in Bellingham Whatcom Museum Photo

Western Flyer in Bellingham Whatcom Museum Photo

By Charles (Bob) Hitz, Nov. 11, 2015   Blog Post 36

After World War II the bottom fish market began to grow. Petrale sole made up a large percentage of the landings and the catch of rockfish, specifically Pacific Ocean perch (POP), began to increase with the advancement of refrigeration. This enabled the fish houses to expand the market of POP with Army contracts as well as with buyers on the east coast. There was fierce competition with a similar Atlantic Ocean species called Ocean perch with the decline of the Great Lake’s yellow perch fishery.

Fig 1 (2)Demand for POP grew and Dan Luketa started catching it in the international waters of Canada north of Vancouver Island in Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Straits. He purchased Western Flyer in 1952, converted her to a trawler and added her to his two other converted trawlers, Sunbeam and Paul L, to harvest POP. Kevin Bailey’s book gives the reader insight into Dan’s business. It made economic sense to travel the inside passage to the extremely productive fishing grounds off Canada, especially during the winter months when the demand for fish was high, without having to worry about crossing the Oregon and Washington bars.

Drawing Western Flyer as a Trawler Hitz Drawing

Drawing Western Flyer as a Trawler Hitz Drawing

His book has two pictures of the Western Flyer as a trawler, one of which was found in the Whatcom Museum photo archives and is the earliest, waiting with a load of bottom fish to be off-loaded in Bellingham, Washington. The Luketa family were innovators and the trawl doors shown in the picture are different from the doors on the Cobb , which were wooden and of the same design as those used by the rest of trawl fleets throughout the world. The second picture was taken later when she was chartered by the Halibut Commission in 1962, after she had been fitted out with a net reel and V-doors on the stern, also Luketa innovations.

Luketa’s Trawler SunbeamDunatov Photo

Luketa’s Trawler Sunbeam Dunatov Photo

Western Flyer is a typical Pacific coast seiner, which is referred to as a combination vessel. When Luketa purchased her after the collapse of the sardine fishery, he converted her into a trawler by removing the turntable, seine davit, seine winch and the crow’s nest at the top of the mast, which was used in sardine fisheries to spot sardine schools. He added a metal railing around the stern where the turn table had been, along with two trawl stanchions and a centralized trawl winch similar to the Cobb’s.

: Tom’s Dad with white gloves on the left on Sunbeam Dunatov Photo

Tom’s Dad with white gloves on the left on Sunbeam Dunatov Photo

I miss talking with Tom Dunatov. With his passing we’ve lost a fantastic resource about the fishing industry and the Croatian community. Tom talked about Luketa’s trawl fleet of three vessels: the Sunbeam, Western Flyer and the Paul L. His dad worked on the Sunbeam before being employed on the Cobb. We also discussed their innovations, the flat doors that developed into V-doors and are often referred to as the “Luketa doors.” V-doors became common in Pacific coast trawl fisheries, and while I was working on the Cobb in Neah Bay during the ‘60’s I took a picture of the trawler Heather, with its set of V-doors.

Heather with V-doors Hitz Photo

Heather with V-doors Hitz Photo

They are also credited with the introduction of the trawl net reel. Brad Pattie, whom I accompanied when we flew over the Soviet Fleet in 1967, had a few pictures of the Paul L with her new trawl reel on the stern. The date on the photographs was August, 1957, two years after the net reel was introduced to the trawl fleet. In 1959 (1) Lee Alverson published a picture of the Sunbeam with a new trawl reel that appears to be like that on the Paul L. The net reel was a great asset to trawling in the North Pacific when it was introduced – it improved setting and hauling of the trawl by rolling up the bridles along with the net itself.

Luketa’s Trawler Paul- L Pattie Photo

Luketa’s Trawler Paul- L Pattie Photo

I visited the Western Flyer in Port Townsend where she was being reconstructed during the 2015 Wooden Boat Festival and found a couple of modifications to the skipper’s quarters that I had missed when I drew her as a seiner. The first was adding a sliding door. The second appeared to be removal of the top bunk and adding a chart storage cabinet in the wall where the bunk had been, along with a drop-down chart table. I believe that these changes probably occurred when she was converted to a trawler, because the crew size of a trawler is smaller than required by a sardine seiner and navigation had to be more precise in making and locating drags along trawlable grounds. I also noticed where the break occurred between the fish hold and the engineroom. I added the changes to the drawing as she appeared in 1962 as a trawler, which included the net reel and the V-doors, when she was charted by the Halibut commission.

Net Reel on Paul-L Pattie Photo

Net Reel on Paul-L Pattie Photo

Bailey’s book stated that “When the Pacific ocean perch harvest started falling in the 1960s, Dan Luketa realized that he needed a new fishery to support his flotilla. He and the Western Flyer headed north once again, this time to the Aleutian Islands to fish for red king crab in the stormy waters of Alaska”. So when the Soviet Fleet appeared off the Washington and Oregon Coast in 1966 and began fishing in as close as 3 miles off the coast, the Western Flyer had already gone on a new adventure, described in Keith Bailey’s book.

Alverson, D.L., 1959, Trends in Trawling Methods and Gear on the West Coast of the United States. Modern Fishing Gear of the World. Fishing News (Books) Ltd. 1959, pages 317-320

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